Referencing In An Academic Essay Cover

Dissertations, thesis papers, and all kinds of academic papers will require to be cited in APA, MLA, and Chicago Style, as these three formats are well-known and widely accepted. Citing academic papers properly are done to counteract plagiarism.

These citing formats are used to recognize related literary pieces and to mention references used. Research paper formats should also be studied really well before making scholastic essays or any other academic writing. In this article, we will be tackling how to format research papers as well as how to properly reference academic papers.


Table Of Contents


APA Research Paper Format

APA (American Psychological Association) research paper format is usually used with studies relating to social sciences. In this citation, there is a general format in referencing through endnotes/footnotes, in-text, and reference pages. Academic papers in APA citation has general writing guidelines.

Papers should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11") with 1" margins on all sides. You should use a clear font that is highly readable. Include a page header at the top of every page. To create a page header, insert page numbers flush right. Then type the title of your paper in the header flush left using all capital letters. The page header is a shortened version of your paper's title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation.

Your APA paper should have four major sections:

  • Title page
  • Abstract
  • Main Body
  • References

How to Cite a Research Paper in APA

There are specific rules to follow when citing a research paper in APA. The following are the specific formats to follow:

  • Book: Author, A.A.. (Year of Publication). The Title of work. Publisher City, State: Publisher.
  • Example: Finney, J. (1970). Time and again. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
  • Magazine: Author, A.A.. (Year, a month of Publication). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue), pp.-pp.
  • Example: Tumulty, K. (2006, April). Should they stay or should they go? Time, 167(15), 3-40.
  • Newspaper: Author, A.A.. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Article title. Magazine Title, pp. xx-xx.
    Rosenberg, G. (1997, March 31). An electronic discovery proves an effective legal weapon.The New York Times, p. D5.
  • Website: Author, A.A.. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Article title. Retrieved from URL
  • Example: Simmons, B. (2015, January 9). The tale of two Flaccos. Retrieved from {link}

MLA Research Paper Format

MLA (Modern Language Association) format is commonly used in liberal arts and humanities. This format has principles rather than a set of specific rules to be followed. Papers in MLA format provides a process of documentation.

How to Cite a Research Paper in MLA Format

The following are formats to follow in citing research paper in MLA format:

  • Book: Last Name, First Name. Book Title. Publisher City: Publisher Name, Year Published. Medium.
  • Example: Smith, John. The Sample Book. Pittsburgh: BibMe, 2008. Print.
  • Magazine: Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Magazine Name Publication Date: Page Numbers. Medium.
  • Example: Smith, John. “Obama inaugurated as President.” Time 21 Jan. 2009: 21-23. Print.
  • Newspaper: Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Newspaper Name Publication Date: Page Numbers. Medium.
  • Example: Smith, John. “Steelers win Super Bowl XLIII.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2 Feb. 2009: 4-6. Print.
  • Website: Last Name, First Name. “Page Title.” Website Title.Sponsoring Institution/Publisher. Publication Date: Page Numbers. Medium.
  • Example: Smith, John. “Obama inaugurated as President.” CNN.com. Cable News Network, 21 Jan. 2009. Web. 1 Feb. 2009.

Read more about How To Cite A Research Paper Using MLA Format

How to Cite a Research Paper in Chicago Style

The Chicago style of citation is commonly used in humanities and helps writers cite sources in endnotes or footnotes. This citation provides author an avenue to express accountability and credibility to related literature or references used in written material. It also helps to an academic writer cite a quote in a research paper and is commonly used for book bibliographies.
The following are Chicago style formats to follow:

  • Book: Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher City: Publisher Name, Year Published.
  • Example: Brown, Dan. The DaVinci Code. New York: Scholastic, 2004.
  • Magazine: Last Name, First Name. Article title. Magazine Title, Month Date, Year of publication.
  • Example: Chan, Dan. The art of pandas. Panda Magazine, Nov 10, 1985.
  • Newspaper: Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Newspaper Name, Publication Date.
  • Example: Smith, John. “Steelers win Super Bowl XLIII.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, February 2, 2009.
  • Website: Last Name, First Name. “Page Title.” Website Title. Web Address (retrieved Date Accessed).
  • Example: Smith, John. “Obama inaugurated as President.” {link} (accessed February 1, 2009).

Essay Writing Advice From Our Professional Team

Essay Bull , from EssayPro

This guide is very comprehensive on citation rules of many different formats. The article sufficiently describes the three most common citation types. However, it omits two also frequently-occurring citation styles in the research field: the ASA format and the Chicago/Turabian format. The ASA format is mainly used for sociology papers, and the Chicago format is applicable for citing if your professor demands notes and bibliography or an author-date citation. If you’re a writing guru or you are getting into writing professionally, I would definitely recommend checking those out. If you’re writing for a class, then always make sure to clarify which citation style your professor prefers you cite your essay in. Otherwise, you might end up in a load of trouble! In my knowledge, there are many citation generators on the web. However, I recommend that you cite things manually. This would ensure that you have more control over citations.

Get help with your paper!

Citing references and related literature in a dissection, thesis paper, etc. is truly an important part. As a student or a professional, you should be able to show written pieces which helped you synthesize ideas and formulate conclusions. If you are having trouble referencing your gathered information, head on over to our paper writing service and you will get help with your research paper!

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General Format

Summary:

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Contributors: Joshua M. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck
Last Edited: 2018-02-21 02:26:13

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in APA.

To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all APA citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.

You can also watch our APA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel.

General APA Guidelines

Your essay should be typed and double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11"), with 1" margins on all sides. You should use a clear font that is highly readable. APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font.

Include a page header  (also known as the "running head") at the top of every page. To create a page header/running head, insert page numbers flush right. Then type "TITLE OF YOUR PAPER" in the header flush left using all capital letters. The running head is a shortened version of your paper's title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation.

Major Paper Sections

Your essay should include four major sections: the Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, and References.

Title Page

The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author's name, and the institutional affiliation. Include the page header (described above) flush left with the page number flush right at the top of the page. Please note that on the title page, your page header/running head should look like this:

Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER

Pages after the title page should have a running head that looks like this:

TITLE OF YOUR PAPER

After consulting with publication specialists at the APA, OWL staff learned that the APA 6th edition, first printing sample papers have incorrect examples of running heads on pages after the title page. This link will take you to the APA site where you can find a complete list of all the errors in the APA's 6th edition style guide.

Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Your title may take up one or two lines. All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced.

Beneath the title, type the author's name: first name, middle initial(s), and last name. Do not use titles (Dr.) or degrees (PhD).

Beneath the author's name, type the institutional affiliation, which should indicate the location where the author(s) conducted the research.

Image Caption: APA Title Page

Abstract

Begin a new page. Your abstract page should already include the page header (described above). On the first line of the abstract page, center the word “Abstract” (no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation marks).

Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. (Do not indent.) Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions. You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings. Your abstract should be a single paragraph, double-spaced. Your abstract should be between 150 and 250 words.

You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract. To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: (italicized), and then list your keywords. Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.

Image Caption: APA Abstract Page

Please see our Sample APA Paper resource to see an example of an APA paper. You may also visit our Additional Resources page for more examples of APA papers.

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in APA

Individual Resources

Contributors' names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.

Contributors' names (Last edited date). Title of resource. Retrieved from http://Web address for OWL resource

 

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderlund, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

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