Wiki Essayist Umberto

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This is a list of essayists—people notable for their essay-writing.

Note: Birthplaces (as listed) do not always indicate nationality.

A[edit]

  • Augurio Abeto, (1900–1977, Philippines)
  • André Aciman, (born 1951, Egypt)
  • Joseph Addison (1672–1719, England)
  • Theodor W. Adorno (1903–1969, Germany)
  • José de Alencar, (1829–1877, Brazil)
  • Kingsley Amis (1922–1995, United Kingdom)
  • Martin Amis (born 1949, United Kingdom)
  • Oswald de Andrade, (1890–1954, Brazil)
  • Jacob M. Appel (born 1973, United States)
  • Helena Araújo Ortiz (1934–2015, Colombia)
  • Matthew Arnold (1822–1888, United Kingdom)
  • Anastasia Ashman (born 1964, United States)
  • Margaret Atwood (born 1939, Canada)
  • Isaac Asimov (1920–1992, Russia)
  • W. H. Auden (1907–1973, United Kingdom)
  • Joxe Azurmendi (born 1941, Spain)

B[edit]

  • Rambriksh Benipuri (1902–1968, India)
  • Francis Bacon (1561–1626, England)
  • Walter Bagehot (1826–1877, England)
  • James Baldwin (1924–1987, United States)
  • Anna Laetitia Barbauld (1743–1825, England)
  • John Perry Barlow (1947–2018, United States)
  • Julian Barnes (born 1946, United Kingdom)
  • Jacques Barzun (1907–2012, France)
  • Enis Batur (born 1952, Turkey)
  • Charles Baudelaire (1821–1867, France)
  • Hilaire Belloc (1870–1953, United Kingdom)
  • Walter Benjamin (1892–1940, Germany)
  • Wendell Berry (born 1934, United States)
  • Jens Bjørneboe (1920-1976, Norway)
  • Jorge Luis Borges (1899–1986, Argentina)
  • Alain de Botton (born 1969, Switzerland)
  • Giannina Braschi (born 1953, Puerto Rico)
  • William Brandon (1914–2002, United States)
  • Alfred Brendel (born 1931, Czech Republic)
  • Christopher Buckley (born 1952, United States)
  • Anthony Burgess (1917–1993, United Kingdom)
  • Richard de Bury (1287–1345, England)

C-D[edit]

  • Erskine Caldwell (1903– 2007, United States)
  • Italo Calvino (1923–1985, Italy)
  • Albert Camus (1913–1960, Algeria)
  • Rafael Cansinos Assens (1882–1964, Spain)
  • John Carey (born 1934, United Kingdom)
  • Simon Carmiggelt (1913–1987, Netherlands)
  • Otto Maria Carpeaux (1900–1978, Austria)
  • Kelly Cherry (born 1940, United States)
  • G. K. Chesterton (1874–1936, United Kingdom)
  • Noam Chomsky (1928, United States)
  • Winston Churchill (1874–1965, Great Britain)
  • J. M. Coetzee (born 1940, South Africa)
  • William Cobbett (1763–1835, Great Britain)
  • Charles Caleb Colton (1780–1832, Great Britain)
  • Cyril Connolly (1903–1974, United Kingdom)
  • Abraham Cowley (1618–1667, Great Britain)
  • Emil Cioran (1911–1995, Romania)
  • A. J. Cronin (1896–1981, Scotland)
  • Orson Scott Card (born 1951, United States)
  • Richard Dawkins (born 1941, United Kingdom)
  • Mike Daisey (born 1976, United States)
  • Anthony Daniels (Theodore Dalrymple) (born 1949, United Kingdom)
  • Nik De Dominic (born 1981, United States)
  • Joan Didion (born 1934, United States)
  • Annie Dillard (born 1945, United States)
  • Alfred Döblin (1878-1957, Germany)
  • John Dolan (born 1955, United States)
  • Joe Dolce (born 1947, Australia)
  • Denis Donoghue (born 1928, Ireland)
  • John Dryden (1631–1700, England)

E-G[edit]

  • Klaus Ebner (born 1964, Austria)
  • Umberto Eco (1932–2016, Italy)
  • T. S. Eliot (1888–1965, United States)
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882, United States)
  • Joseph Epstein (born 1937, United States)
  • Filip Erceg (born 1979, Croatia)
  • Barbara Ehrenreich (born 1941, United States)
  • Jaime Eyzaguirre, (1908–1968, Chile)
  • Anne Fadiman (born 1953, United States)
  • Femi Fani-Kayode (born 1960, Nigeria)
  • Frantz Fanon (1925–1961, Martinique)
  • Richard Farmer (1735–1797, England)
  • Benito Jerónimo Feijoo e Montenegro (1676–1764, Spain)
  • Lawrence Ferlinghetti (born 1919, United States)
  • Predrag Finci (born 1946, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
  • E. M. Forster (1879–1970, England)
  • John Foster (1770–1843, United Kingdom)
  • Ian Frazier (born 1951, United States)
  • Robert Fulghum (born 1937, United States)
  • Joan Fuster (1922–1992, Spain)
  • Harry Gamboa, Jr. (born 1951, United States)
  • Karl-Markus Gauß (born 1954, Austria)
  • Malcolm Gladwell (born 1963, United Kingdom)
  • Adam Gopnik (born 1956, United States)
  • Stephen Jay Gould (1941–2002, United States)
  • Muhammad Loutfi Goumah (1886–1953, Egypt)
  • Paul Graham (born 1964, England)
  • Clement Greenberg (born 1909, United States)
  • A. C. Grayling (born 1949, United Kingdom)
  • Gordon Grice (born 1965, United States)
  • Stanka Gjurić (born 1956, Croatia)

H-J[edit]

  • Carla Harryman (born 1952, California)
  • William Hazlitt (1778–1830, England)
  • Peter Handke (born 1942 Griffen, Austria)
  • Saeko Himuro (1957–2008, Japan)
  • Fumi Hirano (born 1955, Japan)
  • Christopher Hitchens (1949–2011, United Kingdom)
  • Peter Hitchens (born 1951, United Kingdom)
  • Hugh Hood (1928–2000, Canada)
  • Langston Hughes (1902–1967, United States)
  • David Hume (1711–1776, United Kingdom)
  • Leigh Hunt (1784–1859, England)
  • Shigesato Itoi (born 1948, Japan)
  • Jwalamukhi (1938–2008, India)
  • Michael Johns (born 1964, United States)
  • Diane Johnson (born 1934, United States)
  • Samuel Johnson (1709–1784, England)
  • June Jordan (1936–2002, United States)

K-L[edit]

  • Steven G. Kellman (born 1947, United States)
  • Frank Kermode (1919–2010, United Kingdom)
  • Tracy Kidder (born 1945, United States)
  • Chuck Klosterman (born 1972, United States)
  • Rudy Kousbroek (1929–2010, Netherlands)
  • Hans Krieger (born 1933, Germany)
  • Miroslav Krleža (1893–1981, Croatia)
  • Tomislav Ladan (1932–2008, Serbia)
  • Laila Lalami (born 1968, Morocco)
  • Charles Lamb (1775–1834, England)
  • Shankar Lamichhane (Nepal)
  • Corinne Lee (United States)
  • Albert Leung (born 1961, Hong Kong)
  • C. S. Lewis (1898–1963, Ireland)
  • Li Ao (born 1935, China, Taiwan)
  • Liang Shiqiu (1903–1987. China, Taiwan)
  • Alan Lightman (born 1948, United States)
  • Tim Lilburn (born 1950, Canada)
  • Lin Wenyue (born 1933, Taiwan)
  • Joan Lindsay (1896–1984, Australia)
  • Lu Xun (1881–1936, China)

M-N[edit]

  • John McPhee (born 1931, United States)
  • Maurice Maeterlinck (1862–1949), Belgium)
  • Norman Mailer (1923–2007, United States)
  • Jorge Majfud (born 1969, Uruguay)
  • Nathan McCall (born 1955, United States)
  • Mary McCarthy (1912–1989, United States)
  • Tim McKay (1947–2006, United States)
  • Louis Menand (born 1952, United States)
  • H. L. Mencken (1880–1956, United States)
  • Arthur Miller (1915–2005, United States)
  • Pankaj Mishra (born 1969, India)
  • Donald Grant Mitchell (1822–1908, United States)
  • Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592, France)
  • Angela Morales (born 1966, United States)
  • Michele Moramarco (born 1953, Italy)
  • V. S. Naipaul (born 1932, Trinidad and Tobago)
  • Nakane Kōtei (1839–1913, Japan)
  • Ukichiro Nakaya (1900–1962, Japan)
  • Marie NDiaye (born 1967, France)
  • Virgil Nemoianu (born 1940, Romania)
  • Kathleen Norris (born 1947, United States)

O-R[edit]

  • Joyce Carol Oates (born 1938, United States)
  • George Orwell (1903–1950, United Kingdom)
  • Borislav Pekić (1930–1992, Serbia)
  • Noel Perrin (1927–2004, United States)
  • Samuel F. Pickering Jr. (born 1941, United States)
  • Mestrius Plutarch (46–127, Boeotia, Ancient Greece)
  • Katherine Ann Porter (1890–1980, United States)
  • Kevin Prufer (born 1969, United States)
  • Edgar Allan Poe (1809–1849, United States)
  • Thomas de Quincey (1785–1859, England)
  • Indra Bahadur Rai (born 1927, India)
  • Kenneth Rexroth (1905–1985, United States)
  • Tjalie Robinson (1911–1974, Netherlands)
  • Richard Rodriguez (born 1944, United States)
  • Arundhati Roy (born 1961, India)
  • Bertrand Russell (1872–1970, United Kingdom)

S[edit]

  • Rahul Sankrityayan (1893–1963, India)
  • Edward Said (1935–2003, Palestine)
  • John Ralston Saul (born 1947, Canada)
  • Dan Schneider (born 1965, United States)
  • Robert Schumann (1810–1856, Germany)
  • David Sedaris (born 1956, United States)
  • John Robert Seeley (1834–1895, England)
  • Rafael Calvo Serer (1916–1988, Spain)
  • George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950, Ireland)
  • Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822, England)
  • David Shields (1956, United States)
  • Clay Shirky (born 1964, United States)
  • Simeon Simev (born 1949, Republic of Macedonia)
  • Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar' (1908–1974, India)
  • Jean Edward Smith (born 1932, United States)
  • Zadie Smith (born 1975, England)
  • Walid Soliman (born 1975, Tunisia)
  • Rebecca Solnit (born 1961, United States)
  • Susan Sontag (1933–2004, United States)
  • Dejan Stojanović (born 1959, Serbia)
  • Lytton Strachey (1880–1932, United Kingdom)
  • Cheryl Strayed (born 1968, United States)
  • Matias Skard (1846-1827, Norway)

T-Y[edit]

  • Nassim Nicholas Taleb (born 1960, Lebanon)
  • Alain Tasso (born 1962, Lebanon)
  • Vijay Tendulkar (1928–2008, India)
  • Issa Laye Thiaw (born 1943, Senegal)
  • Colm Tóibín (born 1955, Ireland)
  • Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910, Russia)
  • Lionel Trilling (1905–1975, United States)
  • George W. S. Trow (1943–2006, United States)
  • Andrew Vachss (born 1942, United States)
  • Paul Valéry (1871–1945, France)
  • Erico Verissimo (1905–1975, Brazil)
  • Gore Vidal (1925–2012, United States)
  • Voltaire (1697–1778, France)
  • Richard Wagner (1813–1883, Germany)
  • David Foster Wallace (1962–2008, United States)
  • Rebecca West (1892–1983, United Kingdom)
  • E. B. White (1899–1985, United States)
  • Oscar Wilde (1852–1900, Ireland)
  • Tom Wolfe (born 1931, United States)
  • Virginia Woolf (1882–1941, United Kingdom)
  • Yang Jiang (1911–2016, China)
  • Marguerite Yourcenar (1903–1987, France)
Humbert I redirects here. It can also refer to Humbert I, Count of Savoy (980 – 1047 or 1048) and to Humbert I of Viennois (1240–1307), Dauphin of the Viennois.
Italian Royalty
House of Savoy
Victor Emmanuel II
Children
Marie Clothilde, Princess Napoléon
Umberto I
Amadeo I of Spain
Prince Oddone, Duke of Montferrat
Maria Pia, Queen of Portugal and the Algarves
Prince Carlo Alberto, Duke of Chablais
Prince Vittorio Emanuele
Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Geneva
Grandchildren
Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta
Prince Vittorio Emanuele, Count of Turin
Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi
Prince Umberto, Count of Salemi
Great Grandchildren
Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta
Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta
Great Great Grandchildren
Princess Margherita, Dowager Archduchess of Austria-Este
Princess Maria Cristina
Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta
Great Great Great Grandchildren
Princess Bianca
Prince Aimone, Duke of Apulia
Princess Mafalda
Great Great Great Grandchildren
Prince Umberto
Prince Amedeo
Princess Isabella
Umberto I
Children
Victor Emmanuel III
Victor Emmanuel III
Children
Princess Yolanda, Countess of Bergolo
Princess Mafalda, Landgravine of Hesse
Umberto II
Giovanna, Tsaritsa of Bulgaria
Maria Francesca, Princess Luigi of Bourbon-Parma
Umberto II
Children
Maria Pia, Princess Michel of Bourbon-Parma
Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples
Princess Maria Gabriella
Princess Maria Beatrice
Grandchildren
Emanuele Filiberto, Prince of Venice
Great Grandchildren
Princess Vittoria
Princess Luisa

Umberto I (Italian: Umberto Ranieri Carlo Emanuele Giovanni Maria Ferdinando Eugenio di Savoia; 14 March 1844 – 29 July 1900), nicknamed the Good (Italian: il Buono), was the King of Italy from 9 January 1878 until his assassination on 29 July 1900.

Umberto's reign saw Italy attempt colonial expansion into the Horn of Africa, successfully gaining Eritrea and Somalia despite being defeated by Abyssinia at the Battle of Adowa in 1896. In 1882, he approved the Triple Alliance with the German Empire and Austria-Hungary.

He was deeply loathed in leftist circles because of his conservatism and support of the Bava-Beccaris massacre in Milan. He was especially hated by anarchists, who attempted an assassination on him during the first year of his reign. He was killed by another anarchist, Gaetano Bresci, two years after the Bava-Beccaris massacre.

Youth[edit]

The son of Victor Emmanuel II and Archduchess Adelaide of Austria, Umberto was born in Turin, which was then capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia, on 14 March 1844, his father's 24th birthday. His education was entrusted to, amongst others, Massimo Taparelli, marquis d'Azeglio and Pasquale Stanislao Mancini.

From March 1858, he had a military career in the Sardinian army, beginning with the rank of captain. Umberto took part in the Italian Wars of Independence: he was present at the battle of Solferino in 1859, and in 1866 commanded the XVI Division at the Villafranca battle that followed the Italian defeat at Custoza.

Because of the upheaval the Savoys caused to a number of other royal houses (all the Italian ones, and those related closely with them, such as the Bourbons of Spain and France) in 1859–60, only a minority of royal families in the 1860s were willing to establish relations with the newly founded Italian royal family. It proved difficult to find any royal bride for either of the sons of king Victor Emmanuel II. (His younger son Amedeo, Umberto's brother, married ultimately a Piedmontese subject, princess Vittoria of Cisterna.) Their conflict with the papacy did not help these matters. Not many eligible Catholic royal brides were easily available for young Umberto.

At first, Umberto was to marry Archduchess Mathilde of Austria, a scion of a remote sideline of the Austrian imperial house; however, she died as the result of an accident at the age of 18. On 21 April 1868, Umberto married his first cousin, Margherita Teresa Giovanna, Princess of Savoy. Their only son was Victor Emmanuel, prince of Naples. While Umberto was to be described by a modern historian as "a colorless and physically unimpressive man, of limited intellect" Margherita's appearance, cultural interests and strong personality were to enhance the popularity of the monarchy.[1]

Reign[edit]

Accession to the throne and first assassination attempt[edit]

Ascending the throne on the death of his father (9 January 1878), Umberto adopted the title "Umberto I of Italy" rather than "Umberto IV" (of Savoy), and consented that the remains of his father should be interred at Rome in the Pantheon, rather than the royal mausoleum of Basilica of Superga. While on a tour of the kingdom, accompanied by Queen Margherita and the Prime Minister Benedetto Cairoli, he was attacked with a dagger by an anarchist, Giovanni Passannante, during a parade in Naples on 17 November 1878. The King warded off the blow with his sabre, but Cairoli, in attempting to defend him, was severely wounded in the thigh. The would-be assassin was condemned to death, even though the law only allowed the death penalty if the King was killed. The King commuted the sentence to one of penal servitude for life, which was served in a cell only 1.4 meters (4 ft 7 in) high, without sanitation and with 18 kilograms (40 lb) of chains. Passanante would later die in a psychiatric institution.[2]

Foreign policy[edit]

In foreign policy Umberto I approved the Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Germany, repeatedly visiting Vienna and Berlin. Many in Italy, however, viewed with hostility an alliance with their former Austrian enemies, who were still occupying areas claimed by Italy.

Umberto was also favorably disposed towards the policy of colonial expansion inaugurated in 1885 by the occupation of Massawa in Eritrea. Italy expanded into Somalia in the 1880s as well. Umberto I was suspected of aspiring to a vast empire in north-east Africa, a suspicion which tended somewhat to diminish his popularity after the disastrous Battle of Adowa in Ethiopia on 1 March 1896.

In the summer of 1900, Italian forces were part of the Eight-Nation Alliance which participated in the Boxer Rebellion in Imperial China. Through the Boxer Protocol, signed after Umberto's death, the Kingdom of Italy gained a concession territory in Tientsin.

Umberto's attitude towards the Holy See was uncompromising. In an 1886 telegram, he declared Rome "untouchable" and affirmed the permanence of the Italian possession of the "Eternal City".

Turmoil[edit]

The reign of Umberto I was a time of social upheaval, though it was later claimed to have been a tranquil belle époque. Social tensions mounted as a consequence of the relatively recent occupation of the kingdom of the two Sicilies, the spread of socialist ideas, public hostility to the colonialist plans of the various governments, especially Crispi's, and the numerous crackdowns on civil liberties. The protesters included the young Benito Mussolini, then a member of the socialist party. On 22 April 1897, Umberto I was attacked again, by an unemployed ironsmith, Pietro Acciarito, who tried to stab him near Rome.

Bava-Beccaris massacre[edit]

Main article: Bava-Beccaris massacre

During the colonial wars in Africa, large demonstrations over the rising price of bread were held in Italy and on 7 May 1898, the city of Milan was put under military rule by General Fiorenzo Bava-Beccaris, who ordered rifle-fire and artillery against the demonstrators. As a result, 82 people were killed according to the authorities, with opposition sources claiming that the death toll was 400 dead with 2,000 wounded.[3] King Umberto sent a telegram to congratulate Bava-Beccaris on the restoration of order and later decorated him with the medal of Great Official of Savoy Military Order, greatly outraging a large part of the public opinion.

Assassination[edit]

On the evening of 29 July 1900, Umberto was assassinated in Monza. The king was shot four times by Italo-American anarchistGaetano Bresci. Bresci claimed he wanted to avenge the people killed in Milan during the suppression of the riots of May 1898.[4]

Umberto was buried in the Pantheon in Rome, by the side of his father Victor Emmanuel II, on 9 August 1900. He was the last Savoy to be buried there, as his son and successor Victor Emmanuel III died in exile and was buried in Egypt until his remains were transferred to Vicoforte near Turin in 2017.

American anarchist Leon F. Czolgosz claimed that the assassination of Umberto I was his inspiration to kill U. S. President William McKinley in September 1901.

Titles, styles and honours[edit]

Titles and styles[edit]

  • 14 March 1844 - 23 March 1849: His Royal Highness Prince Umberto of Savoy
  • 23 March 1849 - 9 January 1878: His Royal Highness The Prince of Piedmont
  • 9 January 1878 - 29 July 1900: His Majesty The King of Italy

Titles as King of Italy[edit]

From 1860 to 1946, the following titles were used by the King of Italy:

Umberto the First, by the Grace of God, King of Italy, King of Sardinia, Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia, Duke of Savoy, count of Maurienne, Marquis (of the Holy Roman Empire) in Italy; prince of Piedmont, Carignano, Oneglia, Poirino, Trino; Prince and Perpetual vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; prince of Carmagnola, Montmellian with Arbin and Francin, prince bailliff of the Duchy of Aosta, Prince of Chieri, Dronero, Crescentino, Riva di Chieri e Banna, Busca, Bene, Brà, Duke of Genoa, Monferrat, Aosta, Duke of Chablais, Genevois, Duke of Piacenza, Marquis of Saluzzo (Saluces), Ivrea, Susa, del Maro, Oristano, Cesana, Savona, Tarantasia, Borgomanero e Cureggio, Caselle, Rivoli, Pianezza, Govone, Salussola, Racconigi con Tegerone, Migliabruna e Motturone, Cavallermaggiore, Marene, Modane e Lanslebourg, Livorno Ferraris, SanthiàAgliè, Centallo e Demonte, Desana, Ghemme, Vigone, Count of Barge, Villafranca, Ginevra, Nizza, Tenda, Romont, Asti, Alessandria, del Goceano, Novara, Tortona, Bobbio, Soissons, Sant'Antioco, Pollenzo, Roccabruna, Tricerro, Bairo, Ozegna, delle Apertole, Baron of Vaud e del Faucigni, Lord of Vercelli, Pinerolo, della Lomellina, della Valle Sesia, del marchesato di Ceva, Overlord of Monaco, Roccabruna and 11/12th of Menton, Noble patrician of Venice, patrician of Ferrara.

Honours[edit]

Italian[edit]

Foreign[edit]

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Umberto I of Italy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16. Victor Amadeus II, Prince of Carignano

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8. Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignano

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

17. Princess Joséphine of Lorraine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Charles Albert of Sardinia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18. Charles of Saxony, Duke of Courland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9. Princess Maria Christina of Saxony

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

19. Countess Franciszka Corvin-Krasińska

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2. Victor Emmanuel II of Italy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor (= 12)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10. Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

21. Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain (= 13)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

22. Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11. Princess Luisa of Naples and Sicily

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23. Archduchess Maria Carolina of Austria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Umberto I of Italy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

25. Maria Theresa of Austria (≠ 5)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6. Archduke Rainer Joseph of Austria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26. Charles III of Spain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13. Infanta Maria Luisa of Spain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

27. Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Archduchess Adelaide of Austria

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

28. Victor Amadeus II, Prince of Carignano (= 16)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14. Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignano (= 8)

 

 

Umberto I depicted on a 100 lira gold coin (1891)
Tomb of Umberto I at the Pantheon

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