Fatty Acid Synthesis
Fatty acid synthesis is a biological process that involves linking of two carbon units to form palmitoyl-CoA in the cytosol and not in the mitochondria. Fatty acid synthase is a catalyst used in the process to catalyze seven different reactions. In some systems, the synthesis can occur on different enzyme units. However, in other cells, there is always a single polypeptide chain that ensures a multiple of activities following protease treatment.
The enzyme that is used in fatty acid synthesis exists as a dimer and a monomer. The dimeric unit is very important based on the fact that it is a highly functional form of fatty acid synthase enzyme. For the synthesis of fatty acid to occur, there must be 14 NADPHs and 7ATPs.
Steps involved in fatty acid synthesis
Fatty acid synthesis starts with Malonyl-CoA and Acetyl-CoA. The reaction process involves
The transfer of malonyl group of malonyl-CoA to ACP where malonyl-CoA-ACP will be catalyzed. Acetyl group of Acetyl-CoA to ACP will also be transferred and catalyzed by acetyl-CoA-ACP transacylase.
Addition of acetyl group from malonyl-ACP will also occur between thioester Acetyl-ACP molecule bond in reaction 1. A condensing enzyme or Beta-keto-ACT will also catalyze the molecule in the process.
Reduction of Beta-keto-ACP synthase will also occur in the 3rd stage into a beta-hydroxyl group with an NADPH. The synthase will be catalyzed by beta-keto-ACP reductase.
Dehydration between beta carbons and alpha will also occur where the reaction will be catalyzed by beta-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydrase.
Enoyl ACP reductase will also catalyze the Trans double bond formed by NADPH leading to its reduction
These are a series of reactions and the first two steps are usually repeated for 6 more times. The acetyl group from the first reaction is replaced by growing acyl-ACP molecule. Therefore, new acetyl groups will be added at the end of the ACP molecule reaction. The final product of fatty acid synthesis will be palmitoyl-ACP and can be fully cleaved to ACP and palmitate by palmitoyl thioesterase enzyme.
Fatty acid synthesis is a process that involves multiple enzymatic activities. They are integrated into fatty acid synthase complex and swung into an appropriate region of the synthase.
The final product of fatty acid synthesis is also synthesized by different cells. Elongases are some of the enzymes that act on palmitate and lengthen it to produce other fatty acids in the cytosol. It is good to note that elongases are highly present in the endoplasmic reticulum and in the mitochondria. However, elongation of palmitate using an elongase usually involves a specific mechanism that is essential for reversal of beta-oxidation.
However, substitution of NADPH for FADH2 in does not need the presence of an elongase.
The control of fatty acid synthesis
Like any other metabolic and biological process, fatty acid synthesis can be controlled. However, cells must have the right controls to meet energy needs. Energy generation needs different precursors including triacyglycerols ion chylomicrons and VLDL, ketone in bodies, fatty acid complexes, lactate, glucose, amino acids and albumin complexes. All these will be carried in blood. For successful regulation of the process, hormone release must also occur and
- Signals that will received in the pancreas will trigger production of hormones
- Low blood sugar to trigger release of glucagon and
- High blood sugar to trigger the release of insulin
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