Harvard Citation Style Example Essay Topics

Harvard is a commonly used method of referencing, which uses the Author-Date system.

 

Which Harvard style?

Note: Harvard has been adapted to suit many different publication styles. The style used in this guide follows the standard prescribed by the following manual:
Snooks & Co. 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn. John Wiley & Sons, Milton, Qld.This is the official style followed in most Australian Government publications.

 

Which style does my Faculty or School use?

Some Schools require a different style from the one outlined here. Use the citation style  required by your Faculty or School.

 

Why Reference your sources?

It is important to reference the sources you use for essays and reports, so that the reader can follow your arguments and check your sources.  It is essential to correctly acknowledge the author when quoting or using other people’s ideas in your work.

 

How do I use Harvard?

 

 

  1. In-text citations are made like this

 

Paraphrasing and in-text citations

Example
The point made by an analytic philosopher (O'Connor 1969, p. 32) is that values cannot be justified in this way. However Kneller (1963b, p. 102) insists that the theorist will inevitably be involved in value claims. 

 

Note: Page, chapter or section numbers may be included in the in-text citation if the cited work is long and the information helps the reader locate the relevant information.

When the authors name is mentioned in-text (eg. Kneller in the example above) add year and page numbers only to the in-text reference.

Entries that have the same author and year are noted by adding a, b, c etc to the year, both in-text eg. Kneller (1963b, p. 102) and in the Reference List (see entries in Reference List below).

 

Direct quotes and in-text citations 

Examples:
‘Having a solid plan as part of research design is essential’ (Hatch 2002, p. 46).
or
Hatch (2002, p. 46) believes ‘having a solid plan as part of research design is essential.’

 

 Note: Always include page numbers when citing a quotation and enclose the quote in single quotation marks.

 

Block quotes and in-text citations

Example:

Inductive analysis is discussed:
            Inductive thinking proceeds from the specific to the general.  Understandings are generated by starting with specfic
          elements and finding connections among them.  To argue inductively is to begin with particular pieces of evidence,
          then pull them together into a meaningful whole.  Inductive data analysis is a search for patterns of meaningful data so
          the general statements about phenomena under investigation can be made (Hatch 2002, p. 161).

 Note: Place a quotation of 30 or more words in your work as a free standing block.  These quotes are usually indented eg. 5 spaces and are in a smaller font eg. 1 pt smaller than the surrounding text.  Do not enclose the quote in quotation marks.

 

  1. Reference lists, at the end of your paper, are made like this (arrange your list alphabetically by author).


Hatch, JA 2002, Doing qualitative research in education settings. State of , .

Kneller, JP 1963a, Is logical thinking logical? Ponsonby & Partridge, Dubbo.

-----1963b, ‘Thinking and logical interaction’, Brain Logic, vol. 257, no. 4, pp. 54-62.

O'Connor, DJ 1969, An introduction to the philosophy of education, Routledge & Kegan Paul, .

[See the sample Reference list].

In this presentation, you will learn the basics of how to create an in-text reference and a reference list in Harvard Style.

So, what is the Harvard style of referencing? The Harvard style is an author-date referencing system, which draws upon the sixth edition of the ‘Style Manual for Authors Editors and Printers’. Each work or source referred to within the body of your writing is given an in-text reference and an entry in the Reference list at the end of the document.

So, how do I format an in-text reference? When formatting your in-text reference you need to consider the following: Are you quoting directly, or in other words copying the exact words as well as the ideas from a source? Or, are you paraphrasing or summarising the words or ideas of others in your own words? If using a direct quote from a source, include the Author’s family name, the year of publication and the page number in round brackets and place single quotation marks around the direct quote. Alternatively, the Author’s name can be used anywhere within the sentence. In this case, place the year of publication and the page number in round brackets directly following the Author’s family name. When paraphrasing or summarising the ideas or opinions of others, include the author’s family name and the year of publication in round brackets before the full stop at the end of the sentence. If including the author anywhere in the sentence, place the year of publication in round brackets directly after the author’s family name.

So, how do I reference when there is more than one author of a particular source? Here are some examples of how you would do an in-text reference when there is more than one author of a particular source.

The next component of Harvard Referencing is to compile a Reference list. A reference list includes the full details of all your in-text references and is listed on a separate page at the end of you assignment, titled ‘References’. It is arranged in alphabetical order by Authors’ family names.

For further assistance, refer to the Harvard Referencing guide OR Contact us through ‘Ask a Librarian’.

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