After reading this tutorial, you should have some insight into inflation and its effects. For starters, you now know that inflation isn't intrinsically good or bad. Like so many things in life, the impact of inflation depends on your personal situation.
Some points to remember:
- Inflation is a sustained increase in the general level of prices for goods and services.
- When inflation goes up, there is a decline in the value, or purchasing power of money.
- Variations on inflation include disinflation, deflation, hyperinflation and stagflation.
- Theories as to the cause of inflation are up for debate. Some common theories include demand-pull inflation, cost-push inflation, and monetary inflation.
- When there is unanticipated inflation, creditors lose, people on a fixed-income lose, menu costs go up, uncertainty reduces spending and exporters aren't as competitive.
- Lack of inflation (or deflation) is not necessarily a good thing and can lead to destabilizing deflationary spirals.
- Inflation is measured with a price index.
- The two main groups of price indexes that measure inflation are the Consumer Price Index and the Producer Price Indexes. The GDP- and Price-deflator are also used.
- Interest rates are decided in the U.S. by the Federal Reserve. Inflation plays a large role in the Fed's decisions regarding interest rates since it uses inflation-targeting as a policy.
- In the long term, stocks and precious metals are good protection against inflation.
- Inflation is a serious problem for fixed income investors. It's important to understand the difference between nominal interest rates and real interest rates.
- Inflation-indexed securities offer protection against inflation but offer low returns.
- LEADING CAUSES OF INFLATION
- FRAGILE ECONOMIC POLICES
- HOARDING, DISHONEST ATTITUDE OF TRADERS
- STEPS TO CHECK INFLATION
Inflation refers to a continuous, general increase in the price of goods and services. Rise in prices is called inflation. Inflation at very fast rate is Hyper-Inflation, medium is Strato-Inflation and low lever is Creeping inflation. During the recent years the rise has abnormal and it has endangered the stability of our economy nationally and individually. In Pakistan inflation has become an
unending disease to our economy. Once a state is caught in the circle of inflation then it will be difficult for that state to get rid of it.
There are various factors that contribute to the rise in prices. Some are natural factors like unfavorable weather conditions which affect the food production and lead to the shortage of commodities in the market. With more money chasing fewer goods, the prices take to the wings. Besides this natural problem there are man-made problems like hoarding which contribute to the rapid increase in prices. The trading community which senses a shorting of certain commodities, especially the essential commodities, they resort to large scale hoarding. They release the hoarding products after increase in the prices and make a neat margin over
their investment in the hoarded products. They get so much profit but it waters inflation.
The rise of prices in Pakistan can also be attribute to the despicable acts of traders. Their only motive is to get maximum profit and so they try to charge lots of money from the customers as much as possible. This has created a class of people who are becoming richer day by day and the other class is becoming poorer. Hoarding is also playing a bad role in escalation of prices in the commodities
One of the most important reasons for inflation is the deficit budgeting. In order to cover the gap Pakistan has been printing more paper currency because foreign aid and taxes can not cover up the deficit. Therefore there will be greater circulation of paper money. There will be hike in prices of domestic used products as the purchasing power of the people has increased. Wrong taxation policy has also been responsible for the rise in prices. The hike in taxes results in greater desire to avoid taxes. Thus public takes wrong way of not paying taxes and there will be escalation in prices.
Pakistan’s government has been making a great effort to check this inflation. The rate of interests has been increased in order to encourage savings and withdraw of currency. The government is making efforts to increase industrial outputs so that the level of consumption is leveled with that of output. But unfortunately the government has not met
with success in getting rid of inflation.
The rise in prices goes non-stopped, some suggest that there should be demonetization of currency, but the government
thinks that it is an irregular method and will create doubts in the minds of the public about the stability of the government. The rise in the prices of petrol has affected the prices in our country. Pakistan is not producing more than 20% of its total requirement of oil. So we have to import a huge amount of oil every year. Moreover no step has been taken against the traders who are
mainly responsible for unreasonable rise in the prices.